2016-Apache, sous ubuntu 16.04

comment travailler sur un site hors connection,

Installer APACHE (à priori installé par defaut)

Le repertoire de travaille par défaut est: "/var/www/html". On y trouve le fichier "index.html" qui s'affiche dans le navigateur à l'adresse: http://localhost/

Nous y lisons nottament:

By default, Ubuntu does not allow access through the web browser to any file apart of those located in/var/wwwpublic_html directories (when enabled) and /usr/share (for web applications). If your site is using a web document root located elsewhere (such as in /srv) you may need to whitelist your document root directory in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.

The default Ubuntu document root is /var/www/html. You can make your own virtual hosts under /var/www. This is different to previous releases which provides better security out of the box.

Permettre la déviation

Il nous faut donc permettre l'utilisation d'un dossier alternatif: pour cela on utilise la commande a2enmod pour activer le module userdir d'Apache2.

Nous faisons apparaitre le terminal en appuyant simultanement sur les touches "ctrl, alt, t". On y colle cette commande (crtl v) puis (ctrl, shift, v) dans le terminal.

sudo a2enmod userdir

le terminal vous demande le mot de passe de l'utilisateur (la saisie se fait en aveugle, saisissez et tapez sur entrée)

cette commande cree des liens pour les fichiers 

  • /etc/apache2/mods-available/userdir.load et 
  • /etc/apache2/mods-available/userdir.conf 

au dossier  /etc/apache2/mods-enable/

Ce aprés quoi nous relançons le service Apache

 sudo service apache2 restart

Mettre en place le Dossier personnel (la destination)

Maintenant créons le dossier "home/user/public_html" avec des droits adaptés.
mkdir ~/public_html
chmod -R 755 ~/public_html

[a priori il faut appliquer aussi un CHMOD au dossier perso: CHMOD 755 /home/user/]

Detourner l'adressage d'APACHE

Nous pouvons donc changer le chemin du "DocumentRoot" dans le fichier "/etc/apache2/apache2.conf"

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

le fichier apparait dans l'éditeur de texte Gedit (voir fichier complet en annexe)


# Sets the default security model of the Apache2 HTTPD server. It does
# not allow access to the root filesystem outside of /usr/share and /var/www.
# The former is used by web applications packaged in Debian,
# the latter may be used for local directories served by the web server. If
# your system is serving content from a sub-directory in /srv you must allow
# access here, or in any related virtual host.
<Directory />
    Options FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride None
    Require all denied
</Directory>

<Directory /usr/share>
    AllowOverride None
    Require all granted
</Directory>

<Directory /home/pierre/public_html>
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride None
    Require all granted
</Directory>

#<Directory /var/www/>
#    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
#    AllowOverride None
#    Require all granted
#</Directory>

#<Directory /srv/>
#    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
#    AllowOverride None
#    Require all granted
#</Directory>

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf

Changez /var/www par notre dossier racine "/home/user/public_html/". (voir fichier complet en annexe)

 #ServerName www.example.com

    ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
    DocumentRoot /home/user/public_html/

  # Available loglevels: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,

Modifier la variable «UserDir public_html» dans le fichier /etc/apache2/mods-available/userdir.conf :

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/mods-available/userdir.conf 

<IfModule mod_userdir.c>

UserDir public_html
UserDir disabled root

<Directory /home/*/public_html>

AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit Indexes
Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec
<Limit GET POST OPTIONS>

Require all granted </Limit>

<LimitExcept GET POST OPTIONS>

Require all denied

</LimitExcept>

</Directory>

</IfModule>

# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet


 
  • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/ssl-default.conf

/etc/apache2/sites-available/ssl-default.conf

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
        <VirtualHost _default_:443>
                ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
                DocumentRoot /mnt/volume-nyc1-01
 . . .

 

Activer les scripts PHP

L'adressage modifié l'adresse http://localhost n'affichera que les pages statiques se trouvant de votre dossier "public_html". Pour des raisons de sécurité le code php n'est pas reconnu dans les dossiers alternatifs.

Il nous faut donc modifier la configuration

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/mods-available/php7.0.conf
extrait du ficher php7.0.conf (fichier complet en annexe)
# Running PHP scripts in user directories is disabled by default

# To re-enable PHP in user directories comment the following lines
# (from <IfModule ...> to </IfModule>.) Do NOT set it to On as it
# prevents .htaccess files from disabling it.
#<IfModule mod_userdir.c>
#   <Directory /home/*/public_html>
#        php_admin_flag engine Off
#   </Directory>
#</IfModule>

enregistrez et fermez Gedit (l'éditeur de texte), ce aprés quoi nous relançons apache:


Verifier la syntaxe de l'ensemble

sudo apachectl configtest


/etc/init.d/apache2 reload

 

 

 

 

Annexes

 

le fichier apache.conf complet

This is the main Apache server configuration file.  It contains the
# configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
# See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ for detailed information about
# the directives and /usr/share/doc/apache2/README.Debian about Debian specific
# hints.
#
#
# Summary of how the Apache 2 configuration works in Debian:
# The Apache 2 web server configuration in Debian is quite different to
# upstream's suggested way to configure the web server. This is because Debian's
# default Apache2 installation attempts to make adding and removing modules,
# virtual hosts, and extra configuration directives as flexible as possible, in
# order to make automating the changes and administering the server as easy as
# possible.

# It is split into several files forming the configuration hierarchy outlined
# below, all located in the /etc/apache2/ directory:
#
#    /etc/apache2/
#    |-- apache2.conf
#    |    `--  ports.conf
#    |-- mods-enabled
#    |    |-- *.load
#    |    `-- *.conf
#    |-- conf-enabled
#    |    `-- *.conf
#     `-- sites-enabled
#         `-- *.conf
#
#
# * apache2.conf is the main configuration file (this file). It puts the pieces
#   together by including all remaining configuration files when starting up the
#   web server.
#
# * ports.conf is always included from the main configuration file. It is
#   supposed to determine listening ports for incoming connections which can be
#   customized anytime.
#
# * Configuration files in the mods-enabled/, conf-enabled/ and sites-enabled/
#   directories contain particular configuration snippets which manage modules,
#   global configuration fragments, or virtual host configurations,
#   respectively.
#
#   They are activated by symlinking available configuration files from their
#   respective *-available/ counterparts. These should be managed by using our
#   helpers a2enmod/a2dismod, a2ensite/a2dissite and a2enconf/a2disconf. See
#   their respective man pages for detailed information.
#
# * The binary is called apache2. Due to the use of environment variables, in
#   the default configuration, apache2 needs to be started/stopped with
#   /etc/init.d/apache2 or apache2ctl. Calling /usr/bin/apache2 directly will not
#   work with the default configuration.


# Global configuration
#

#
# ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
# configuration, error, and log files are kept.
#
# NOTE!  If you intend to place this on an NFS (or otherwise network)
# mounted filesystem then please read the Mutex documentation (available
# at <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/core.html#mutex>);
# you will save yourself a lot of trouble.
#
# Do NOT add a slash at the end of the directory path.
#
#ServerRoot "/etc/apache2"

#
# The accept serialization lock file MUST BE STORED ON A LOCAL DISK.
#
Mutex file:${APACHE_LOCK_DIR} default

#
# PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process
# identification number when it starts.
# This needs to be set in /etc/apache2/envvars
#
PidFile ${APACHE_PID_FILE}

#
# Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out.
#
Timeout 300

#
# KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than
# one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.
#
KeepAlive On

#
# MaxKeepAliveRequests: The maximum number of requests to allow
# during a persistent connection. Set to 0 to allow an unlimited amount.
# We recommend you leave this number high, for maximum performance.
#
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100

#
# KeepAliveTimeout: Number of seconds to wait for the next request from the
# same client on the same connection.
#
KeepAliveTimeout 5


# These need to be set in /etc/apache2/envvars
User ${APACHE_RUN_USER}
Group ${APACHE_RUN_GROUP}

#
# HostnameLookups: Log the names of clients or just their IP addresses
# e.g., www.apache.org (on) or 204.62.129.132 (off).
# The default is off because it'd be overall better for the net if people
# had to knowingly turn this feature on, since enabling it means that
# each client request will result in AT LEAST one lookup request to the
# nameserver.
#
HostnameLookups Off

# ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
# If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a <VirtualHost>
# container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
# logged here.  If you *do* define an error logfile for a <VirtualHost>
# container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
#
ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log

#
# LogLevel: Control the severity of messages logged to the error_log.
# Available values: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,
# error, crit, alert, emerg.
# It is also possible to configure the log level for particular modules, e.g.
# "LogLevel info ssl:warn"
#
LogLevel warn

# Include module configuration:
IncludeOptional mods-enabled/*.load
IncludeOptional mods-enabled/*.conf

# Include list of ports to listen on
Include ports.conf


# Sets the default security model of the Apache2 HTTPD server. It does
# not allow access to the root filesystem outside of /usr/share and /var/www.
# The former is used by web applications packaged in Debian,
# the latter may be used for local directories served by the web server. If
# your system is serving content from a sub-directory in /srv you must allow
# access here, or in any related virtual host.
<Directory />
    Options FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride None
    Require all denied
</Directory>

<Directory /usr/share>
    AllowOverride None
    Require all granted
</Directory>

<Directory /home/pierre/public_html/>
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride None
    Require all granted
</Directory>

#<Directory /var/www/>
#    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
#    AllowOverride None
#    Require all granted
#</Directory>

#<Directory /srv/>
#    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
#    AllowOverride None
#    Require all granted
#</Directory>


# AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory
# for additional configuration directives.  See also the AllowOverride
# directive.
#
AccessFileName .htaccess

#
# The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being
# viewed by Web clients.
#
<FilesMatch "^\.ht">
    Require all denied
</FilesMatch>


#
# The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
# a CustomLog directive.
#
# These deviate from the Common Log Format definitions in that they use %O
# (the actual bytes sent including headers) instead of %b (the size of the
# requested file), because the latter makes it impossible to detect partial
# requests.
#
# Note that the use of %{X-Forwarded-For}i instead of %h is not recommended.
# Use mod_remoteip instead.
#
LogFormat "%v:%p %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" vhost_combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O" common
LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent

# Include of directories ignores editors' and dpkg's backup files,
# see README.Debian for details.

# Include generic snippets of statements
IncludeOptional conf-enabled/*.conf

# Include the virtual host configurations:
IncludeOptional sites-enabled/*.conf

# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet

 

ficher php.conf

<FilesMatch ".+\.ph(p[3457]?|t|tml)$">
    SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
</FilesMatch>
<FilesMatch ".+\.phps$">
    SetHandler application/x-httpd-php-source
    # Deny access to raw php sources by default
    # To re-enable it's recommended to enable access to the files
    # only in specific virtual host or directory
    Require all denied
</FilesMatch>
# Deny access to files without filename (e.g. '.php')
<FilesMatch "^\.ph(p[3457]?|t|tml|ps)$">
    Require all denied
</FilesMatch>

# Running PHP scripts in user directories is disabled by default

# To re-enable PHP in user directories comment the following lines
# (from <IfModule ...> to </IfModule>.) Do NOT set it to On as it
# prevents .htaccess files from disabling it.
#<IfModule mod_userdir.c>
#   <Directory /home/*/public_html>
#        php_admin_flag engine Off
#   </Directory>
#</IfModule>

 

fichier site aviable

<VirtualHost *:80>
    # The ServerName directive sets the request scheme, hostname and port that
    # the server uses to identify itself. This is used when creating
    # redirection URLs. In the context of virtual hosts, the ServerName
    # specifies what hostname must appear in the request's Host: header to
    # match this virtual host. For the default virtual host (this file) this
    # value is not decisive as it is used as a last resort host regardless.
    # However, you must set it for any further virtual host explicitly.
    #ServerName www.example.com

    ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
    DocumentRoot /home/pierre/public_html/

    # Available loglevels: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,
    # error, crit, alert, emerg.
    # It is also possible to configure the loglevel for particular
    # modules, e.g.
    #LogLevel info ssl:warn

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

    # For most configuration files from conf-available/, which are
    # enabled or disabled at a global level, it is possible to
    # include a line for only one particular virtual host. For example the
    # following line enables the CGI configuration for this host only
    # after it has been globally disabled with "a2disconf".
    #Include conf-available/serve-cgi-bin.conf
</VirtualHost>

# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet